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Showing posts from June, 2018

Morphology of Limulus

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/drl98

Horseshoe crabs live primarily in and around shallow coastal waters on soft sandy or muddy bottoms. They occasionally come onto shore to mate. Horseshoe crabs superficially resemble crustaceans but belong to a separate subphylum of the arthropods, Chelicerata, and are closely related to arachnids. Horseshoe crabs are closely related to the extinct eurypterids (sea scorpions), which include some of the largest arthropods to have ever existed, and the two may be sister groups. The earliest horseshoe crab fossils are found in strata from the late Ordovician period, roughly 450 million years ago.
Morphology of a limulus (horseshoe crab): marine arthopod which lives near the shore.
Frontal organ: organ of the horseshoe crab situated at face-level.
Chelicera: a pair of venomous hooks situated on the head of a horseshoe crab.
Walking leg: floating appendage.
Genital operculum: structure covering t…

Anatomy of a Spider

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/5z-f-
Image Credit: https://infovisual.infoA beautiful image showing the internal anatomy of a spider. A spider’s body is divided into two regions, Prosoma, anterior part and Ophisthosoma, the posterior part. Prosoma contains head, antenna and the legs. Everything else is self explanatory.

What is coral bleaching and how it happens?

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/4js5e

Glass eels, the transparent fishes

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/eomi2

Flat and transparent larva of eels are called as Leptocephalus (slim head). Fishes with a leptocephalus larval stage include the most familiar eels such as the conger, moray eel, and garden eel as well as members of the family Anguillidae. Glass eel is a developmental stage from the end of metamorphosis in the leptocephalus to the beginning of pigmentation.
Leptocephalus larva undergoes metamorphosis and enters a stage called as glass eels, before entering freshwater. It has the shape of an adult eel, with small size and without any pigmentation. Following this stage the young eels are called “elvers”.
You may be interested in Whale Falls and Whale fall communities.

Galls eels, the transparent fishes

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/jny-9

Flat and transparent larva of eels are called as Leptocephalus (slim head). Fishes with a leptocephalus larval stage include the most familiar eels such as the conger, moray eel, and garden eel as well as members of the family Anguillidae. Glass eel is a developmental stage from the end of metamorphosis in the leptocephalus to the beginning of pigmentation.
Leptocephalus larva undergoes metamorphosis and enters a stage called as glass eels, before entering freshwater. It has the shape of an adult eel, with small size and without any pigmentation. Following this stage the young eels are called “elvers”.
You may be interested in Whale Falls and Whale fall communities.

Galls eels, the transparent fishes

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/jny-9

Flat and transparent larva of eels are called as Leptocephalus (slim head). Fishes with a leptocephalus larval stage include the most familiar eels such as the conger, moray eel, and garden eel as well as members of the family Anguillidae. Glass eel is a developmental stage from the end of metamorphosis in the leptocephalus to the beginning of pigmentation.
Leptocephalus larva undergoes metamorphosis and enters a stage called as glass eels, before entering freshwater. It has the shape of an adult eel, with small size and without any pigmentation. Following this stage the young eels are called “elvers”.
You may be interested in Whale Falls and Whale fall communities.

Most interesting animal eggs in nature

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/wie02

A collection of most interesting eggs from fishes, birds, reptiles, mammals, insects molluscs, arachnids and crustaceans.

Swire"s Snailfish: Deepest fish in the world

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/hr06f
Image Credit: Gerringer, Linley, Jamieson, Goetze & Drazen, 2017Pseudoliparis swirei is the deepest-dwelling fish in the world. This small deep sea creature can withstand more water pressure than 1,600 elephants standing on its head. Researchers exploring the Mariana Trench, the deepest place on Earth, found large numbers of weird, tadpole-like fish swarming their mackerel-baited traps.
This translucent snailfish was recorded 5 miles below the surface of the ocean, making it the deepest-dwelling fish in the world. This is a tadpole-like fish measuring 112 mm yet appears to be the top predator in its benthic community at the bottom of this particularly deep sea. P. swirei belongs to the snailfish family, Liparidae. It is believed that 8,200m is a physiological limit below which nearly no fishes can survive.
Watch video of Pseudoliparis swirei in its habitat

You may be interested in A f…

Escherichia coli bacteria

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/88s6t
Scanning Electron Microscopic Image of E. coli bacteria. Image Credit: Martin OeggerliEscherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are bacteria found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. It is a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses.

Infographic Guide to skeletons

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/dnuxk
Image Credit: © Chris Rooney

Human Blood Cells

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/lpem4
Comparison of a human red blood cell, a white blood cell and a platelet. SEM X2500 Image Credit: Dr. Stanley FleglerBlood consists of 3 types of cells, suspended in a liquid called plasma. These three types of cells, red blood cells (RBC), white blood (WBC) cells and platelets perform different functions throughout the body. RBC’s transport oxygen to cells and is doughnut shaped.  WBC’s play major role in our immune system, and appears usually in spherical shape. Platelet are cell fragments and they help in blood clotting. This is a Scanning Electron Microscopic Image of Human RBC, WBC and Platelet.

Venus"s hair; Thiolava veneris

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/8e3rm
Epifluorescence micrograph of a single Thiolava veneris filament picked from the solid lava substrate. Image credit: Roberto DanovaroIn 2011, the underwater volcano Tagoro erupted in Canary Islands. The eruption increased water temperature, decreased oxygen and released massive quantities of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. It literally wiped out much of the ecosystem off the coast.
Three years later, a strange new bacteria was the first organism to re-colonize the area. Three years later, a strange new bacteria was found to re-colonize the area. It was a new species of proteobacteria producing long, hair-like structures composed of bacterial cells within a sheath. Due to its long, hair-like structures, sceintists called it ‘Venus’s hair’.
Bacteria grown as a white mat. Image credit: Miquel Canals/University of Barcelona, SpainThe bacteria grew a massive white mat, extending for near…

Common pet diseases and how to prevent them

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/igm6c
Image Credit © GRNSW Greyhounds As Pets

Ancestor of all placental mammals was an insect eater

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/gxegk
Reconstruction of ancestral placental mammal. Image Credit: Carl BuellPlacental mammals are mammals chatacterised by the presence of a plaenta during development.
A Mass extinction in the Cretaceous period (K/Pg Boundary) led to the extinction of non avian dinosaurs. The ancestors of placental mammals were present during this period.
The extinction of carnivorous and herbivorous dinosaurs opened a variery of dietary niches. Existing mammals utilized the opportunity and radiated into all the available niches.
This is the story of evolution of placental mammals as we have learned from fossils.

Now a recent scientific study concluded that the ancestoral placental mammal was an insectivore or insect eater.
But how did they reach the conclusion? Let’s see.
The body of almost all insects is covered with a tough carbohydrate material called chitin. So every animal that feeds on insects are supposed…

Tapanuli orangutan

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/165rh
Image credit: Tim LamanOrangutans are the only Great apeas other than humans in Asia. In 2001, the orangutans of Sumatra and Borneo were recognized as distinct species, Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus.
A team of researchers after examining examining morphometric, behavioral, and genomic evidence, have concluded that an isolated population at the southern range limit of Sumatran orangutans, in Batang Toru.
It is distinct from both northern Sumatran and Bornean species. They were named Pongo tapanuliensis, for the region of the island in which they’re found. An estimated 800 individuals exist in a small, fragmented habitat over about 250,000 acres.
You may be interested in How smart are Orangutans?
Suggested Reading




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Nater A, Mattle-Greminger MP, Nurcahyo A, et al. Morphometric, Behavioral, and Genomic Evidence for a New Orangutan Species. C. 2017;27(22):3487-3498.e10. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017…

Hitchhiking beetle

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/v763-
Image credit: Christoph von Beeren and Alexey K. TishechkinNymphister kronaueri is a tiny beetle that lives among ants. They live exclusively among one species of army ant, Eciton mexicanum in Costa Rica. These army ants are nomadic, spending a few weeks in one place before migrating for about three weeks to new territory.
Shown in green circle is the beetle, attached to the abdomen of ant. Image credit: D. KronauerThe beetle can move about and feed while the host colony is stationary, but when the ants move, so must the beetles. There come the mimicry. The beetle with only 1.5 millimeters length, is shaped, sized and colored just like the abdomen of a worker ant.
The beetle uses its tiny mandibles to clamp down on its host’s abdomen as the ants move. This makes it look like the ant has two abdomens. Like other myrmecophiles, or ant-lovers, these beetles likely use similar chemical signa…

Everything you need to know about ivory poaching

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/hr28c
Infographic Credit: Adolfo Arranz/SCMP Graphic

Hunchbacked shrimp

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/w2bzo
© Copyright Royal Belgian Institute of Natural SciencesAmong the newely discovered 26 species of amphipods of genus Ephimera from Southern Ocean off Antarctica, one species stood out for its humped back. It was named Epimeria quasimodo and is about 2 inches long.
It was named for Victor Hugo’s character, Quasimodo the hunchback, in reference to its somewhat humped back. Extraordinary morphological structures and colors, makes the genus Epimeria an icon of the Southern Ocean that includes both free-swimming predators and sessile filter feeders.
The genus is abundant in the glacial waters circulating south of the Polar Front and their crested adornments are reminiscent of mythological dragons.
Suggested Reading




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D’Udekem d’Acoz C, Verheye ML. Epimeria of the Southern Ocean with notes on their relatives (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Eusiroidea). E. 2017;(359). doi:10.5852/ejt.2017.359



The chemistry of milk

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/urah0
Image Credit: Compound InterestMilk is a complex mixture of Water, fat, proteins, minerals and other compounds. As fats and water don’t mix well, fat and water form an emulsion in milk.
Triglycerides make up the fats in milk. These are molecules with a glycerol backbone and three fatty acid chains attached. Most common fatty acids in milk are palmitic, oleic, stearic, and myristic acids. The variations in the amounts of these acids are a consequence of what cows eat.
Proteins are another important component in milk that gives milk its white appearance. Casein is the main type of protein among hundreds of others.
In milk, proteins cluster together to form structures called micelles. They grow from small clusters of calcium phosphate, which held the proteins together. The micelles are on average about 150 nanometres in diameter, and are able to scatter light that hits them. This scattering …

Dancers on a rope!

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/9ckpz
Image Credit: Hasan BaglarWinning shot in Nature section, from Siena International Photography Awards 2015.
‘When mantises are afraid of something, they raise their arms and spread their wings. It’s their normal defensive behaviour. To take the picture I attempted to touch them and this is how they reacted, opening their wings. They look like smiling ballet dancers.’
-Hasan Baglar, Photographer

How to build a human

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/we4hj
Image Credit: Eleanor Lutz

Not a flower, but a moth

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/cbrao
Image Credit: http://calderdalemoths.blogspot.comElephant hawk moth or scientifically called as Deilephila elpenor is a moth in the Sphingdae family. Its common name is derived from the caterpillar’s resemblance to an elephant’s trunk. It is commonly seen in central Europe and is distributed throughout the palearctic region. Its distinct olive and pink coloring makes it one of the most recognizable moths.
These moths are nocturnal and therefore feed on flowers that open or produce nectar at nighttime. The elephant hawk moth has incredibly sensitive eyes that allow it to see color even at low-light. In fact, it was one of the first species in which nocturnal color vision was documented in animals. The moth is also known for its hovering capability, which it utilizes when feeding on nectar from flowers.

This ancient bird hatchling preserved in amber provides insights into early bird evolution

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/4yfu-
Image Credit: Authors of the publication at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2017.06.001Scientists have recently made an incredible discovery of a piece of amber that contained well preserved remains of an alomost complete bird hatchling. The discovery was made from Burma.
The research team suspects that the little bird fell into a pool of conifer sap in the early stages of its development, mostly soon after it hatched, and got trapped in the glue like plant sap.
The amber had fossilied remains of head, neck, wings and tail of a bird hatchling. The interesting thing is that the amber had perfectly preserved the feathers, claws and flesh. The arrangement of feathers and its attachemnt in skin, microstructure of the feather and pigmentation patters could easily be studied from the specimen.
The hatchling had an unusual kind of feather arrangement where the flight feathers were combined with bod…

Brachiosaurus, the arm lizard

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/lstu1
Image Credit: Joe Tucciarone/Science Photo LibraryName:Brachiosaurus‭ (‬Arm lizard‭).
Phonetic: Brak-he-o-dore-us.
Named By: Elmer S.‭ ‬Riggs‭ ‬-‭ ‬1903.
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Dinosauria,‭ ‬Saurischia,‭ ‬Sauropoda,‭ ‬Titanosauriformes,‭ ‬Brachiosauridae.
Species:B.‭ ‬altithorax (type).
Type: Herbivore.
Size: Approximately‭ ‬26‭ ‬meters long.
Known locations: USA,‭ ‬Morrison formation.
Time period: Kimmeridgian of the Jurassic.
Fossil representation: Several specimens,‭ ‬the most complete of which is believed to have come from a sub adult.
The sauropod dinosaur Brachiosaurus earned its name from the fact that the arms,‭ ‬or rather the fore legs as it was quadrupedal,‭ ‬are actually longer than the hind legs.‭ ‬The fact that these are longer offers Brachiosaurus a passive advantage in reaching up into the tree canopy to feed as the neck is always arched upwards as a result.‭ ‬Sin…

Ancoracysta twista

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/t88rv
Differential interference contrast microscopy of a cell of Ancoracysta twista. Two flagella, the feeding gullet, nucleus and a posterior digestive vacuole are visible. Image credit: Denis V. TiknonenkovAncoracysta twista is a predatory flagellate that uses its whip-like flagella to propel itself and unusual harpoon-like organelles, called ancoracysts, to immobilize other protists on which it feeds. This protist was discovered by Researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego on a brain coral in a tropical aquarium. Thus its geographic origin in the wild is not known.
A. twista does not fit with any known group of organisms. Instead, it appears to belong to an early lineage of eukaryote that was previously unknown. The unusually large number of genes in its mitochondrial genome opens a window into the early evolution of eukaryotic organisms.

Fossil Marsupial lion

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at http://amzoo.in/p0-w9
Reconstruction of Wakaleo schouteni, Image credit: Peter SchoutenThis marsupial lion, named Wakaleo schouteni roamed Australia’s open forest habitats about 23 million years ago in Miocene epoh. Fossilized remains of the creature were unearthed in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area in Queensland. It was estimated to be more or less the size of a Siberian husky dog with about 50 pounds. Its teeth suggest that it was not completely reliant on meat but was, rather, an omnivore and spend part of its time in trees.
W. schouteni was one of two marsupial lions that existed toward the end of the late Oligocene Epoch 25 million years ago. In the subsequent Miocene, species of the genus Wakaleo, or little lions, grew larger in an evolutionary chain reaction following Cope’s rule: Prey animals got bigger as plant life changed in response to a drying and cooling continent.
Suggested Reading




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Gillesp…

Cave Beetle; Xuedytes bellus

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This article was originally posted at Amazing Zoology. View original article at https://is.gd/4ryoch
Xuedytes bellus. Image credit: Sunbin Huang & Mingyi TianXuedytes bellus, a cave dwelling beetle was discovered in a cave in Guangxi Province, China. Like much of southern China, this is in a vast landscape riddled with caves. This new species of beetle is about 9 mm in length, with elongated head and prothorax. First pair of legs are attached to the body segment immediately behind the head.
Beetles that evolve in the darkness of caves often take on a similar set of characteristics, including narrow bodies, spider-like appendages and loss of wings, eyes and pigmentation. Such beetles are an example of convergent evolution.
Suggested Reading




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Tian M, Huang S, Wang D. Discovery of a most remarkable cave-specialized trechine beetle from southern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae). Z. 2017;725:37-47. doi:10.3897/zookeys.725.21040



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